Interamerican Journal of Health Sciences <p><strong>Interamerican Journal of Health Sciences</strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> is the peer-reviewed scientific journal edited by the <strong>School of Medicine and Health Sciences </strong>of the <strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Universidad Abierta Interamericana</a></strong>. The main objective of <strong>IJHS </strong>is to provide Health Professionals with comprehensive valued information and high-quality research related to biomedical sciences, clinical practice, and medical education. <strong>IJHS </strong>is published in different volumes a year, and the online edition is open access.</span></p> <p><strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true">IJHS</span></strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true">'s mission is to produce, propagate, and preserve biomedical knowledge by the highest standards to improve patients outcomes and enhance medical education.</span></p> <p><em>This journal prints original and unpublished contributions that meet the journal's current editorial standards.</em></p> <p>The collaboration of the editors, authors and reviewers of this journal and the ethics guide for editorial processes is governed by the Principles of transparency and good practice in academic publications of the <a href="">Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE),</a> <a href="">EQUATOR Network (Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of health Research), </a><a href="">World Association of Medical Editors </a>, <a href="">Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association</a> , <a href="">ICMJE (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors)</a> and <a href="">DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals)</a></p> Universidad Abierta Interamericana en-US Interamerican Journal of Health Sciences 2953-3724 Correlation between the subjective perception of the lifestyle and eating habits and the objective result of the lipid profile and anthropometric values in amateurs runners of ACAB <p><strong><em>Introduction: </em></strong><em>in Argentina, 55% of those over 18 years of age do insufficient physical activity. A diet with high energy density and low intake of fruits, vegetables and whole grains prevails. The increase in popular sport promotes a favorable change.</em><strong><em> Material and methods: </em></strong><em>Analytical, correlational study conducted in ACAB from 2016 to 2018 to correlate the subjective perception of lifestyle and eating habits with the objective results of the lipid profile and anthropometric values ​​in 46 amateur street runners. These instruments were used: GPAQ 2.0, Questionnaire on lifestyle practices and beliefs, DHQ I, ISAK and lipidogram.</em><strong><em> Results: </em></strong><em>the CC and the ICC were of low cardiometabolic risk. BMI was normal. 67% and 76% had desirable levels of TCol&nbsp; and LDLc, 48% high HDLc and 96% normal TG. The eating habits were adequate, although in 54% it was inappropriate for sweets and fats. Inadequate consumption of snacks and beverages were significant in relation to BF% and BMI, HDLc and ∑6s with lifestyle. The value of METs was high. 85% presented a Healthy Lifestyle. </em><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong><em>men were more overweight than women but better HWI, WC, BF% &nbsp;and Σ</em><em>6s values, and women, better lipid profile. The majority presented adequate consumption, except for sweets and fats in all and refreshments in women. There was a significant correlation between refreshments and drinks and %BF and life style scores with cLDL, cHDL, BMI and ∑6s.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Paula Amiano Copyright (c) 2021 Amiano Paula 2021-12-03 2021-12-03 1 Factors associated with Irritable Bowel Syndrome in medical students <p>El presente trabajo buscó evaluar los factores mas influyentes para el desarrollo del Síndrome de Intestino Irritable, por lo que se realizo un estudio transversal a 152 alumnos de la carrera de medicina de la Universidad Abierta Interamericana, durante junio-julio 2020, aplicando diversas variables de las cuales el tabaquismo y&nbsp; los episodios de gastroenteritis aisladas fueron los factores con mayor relevancia.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Rocio Belen Barreiro Esteban Grzona Copyright (c) 2021 Rocio Belen Barreiro 2021-12-03 2021-12-03 1 Trypanocidal effect of Diminazene aceturate by intranasal administration. Comparison among formulations <p><strong>Background:</strong> The standard treatment for nagana and surra, vector–born parasite diseases, is a single intramuscular (i.m.) dose of diminazene aceturate (Berenil), an aromatic diamidine. Due to discontinuation of public provision of veterinary services or to lack of access to remote areas, low income farmers inject livestock and other domestic animals by themselves. We tested a not explored administration route for drugs against parasitological infections: the intranasal one.&nbsp; Berenil alone dissolved in water did not reach an effective drug concentration.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Mice were infected with <em>Trypanosoma brucei brucei </em>or<em> Trypanosoma evansi</em> and treated with different formulations of Berenil. Survival, parasitemia, body weight and behavior were recorded.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Berenil formulated with chitosan reached a lethal concentration for bloodstream parasites. Residual parasites were absent, as demonstrated by immunosuppression.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The intranasal route is an effective, safer, and easier way to perform antiparasitic treatments in animals.</p> Alicia G. Fuchs María C. Soraires Santacruz Octavio A. Fusco Alicia M. Hoffer Cong-Xi Zhang Fan Zhang Mónica I. Esteva Marcela S. Rial Laura E. Fichera Nicolás G. Cid Romina J. Glisoni De-Hua Lai Esteban José Bontempi Copyright (c) 2021 Alicia G. Fuchs, María C. Soraires Santacruz, Octavio A. Fusco, Alicia M. Hoffer, Cong-Xi Zhang, Fan Zhang, Mónica I. Esteva, Marcela S. Rial, Laura E. Fichera, Nicolás G. Cid, Romina J. Glisoni, De-Hua Lai, Esteban José Bontempi 2021-12-03 2021-12-03 1 33 33 Incidence and impact of immune reconstitution inflammatory response syndrome associated with tuberculosis regarding the initiation of antiretroviral treatment during antituberculosis therapy in adult patients co-infected with tuberculosis and HIV: A systematic review <p>Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a fundamental key in the fight against HIV, it allows the patient to have a prolonged and high quality life, however in coinfection with opportunistic diseases such as tuberculosis, the initiation of ART can generate a greater risk of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome when associated with antituberculosis treatment, generating an exacerbated inflammatory response in tissues rich in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, characterized by the clinical worsening of the patient. The picture ranges from mild and self-limited symptoms to more severe effects and even death.Objectives: This systematic review aims to describe and evaluate the impact, incidence, severity and morbidity of immune reconstitution syndrome (IRRS) on the condition of HIV-positive patients, taking into account the time of ART initiation during antituberculosis treatment. Material and methods: Randomized clinical studies, case-control studies, prospective and retrospective cohorts of the last 11 years, without language limits, obtained from search bases such as PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, performed in adult humans co-infected with mycobacterium tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV) were evaluated. Results: TO</p> <p><em>total of 22 scientific articles were selected and analyzed, 8 of which report that early, immediate and integrated ART of HIV in patients co-infected with TB improved survival despite the higher incidence of TB-SIRI, on the other hand 5 clinical studies affirm that integrated ART generated severe clinical pictures of SIRI-TB and increased mortality, however 5 studies observed that it is more beneficial to initiate ART at any time of anti-tuberculosis treatment, than not to initiate it. Conclusion:our analysis considers it necessary to implement antiretroviral treatment (ART) early in patients coinfected with HIV and TB regardless of the CD4 + cell / mm count, despite the risk of developing another complication such as LRTI associated with TB, taking into account the adequate management of prevention with the corresponding treatment of the opportunistic infection that precedes it, as well as the early diagnosis of LRTI-TB and its consequent treatment, which is not addressed in this review</em></p> <p><em> </em></p> <p><em>.<strong>Keywords:</strong> </em><em>"Immune reconstitution syndrome", "tuberculosis-HIV coinfection", "antiretroviral therapy", "Tuberculosis AND AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections", "tuberculosis</em></p> Marcelo Adrian Estrin Saida Estefani Basilio La Rosa Copyright (c) 2021 Marcelo Adrian Estrin, Saida Estefani Basilio La Rosa 2021-12-03 2021-12-03 1 Treatment of Pediatric Flexible Flatfoot with Subtalar Arthroereisis: Functional and Radiographic Results <p class="p1"><span class="s1"><strong>Introduction</strong></span>: Flexible flatfoot (FFF) is one of the most frequent conditions that pediatric orthopedists face on a daily basis, with an incidence ranging from 15 to 45%. Subtalar arthroereisis has been described as a valid treatment option, which allows, through a simple and easy technique, to restore the internal plantar arch with few complications. The aim of this work is to retrospectively analyze a series of patients treated with this technique and to evaluate the clinical-functional and radiological results of this technique. <span class="s1"><strong>Materials and Methods</strong></span>: We evaluated 41 patients between 9 and 15 years old, with a diagnosis of idiopathic flexible flatfoot treated by two surgeons of our institution, between January 2013 and December 2019, who underwent subtalar arthroereisis. A clinical functional and radiological evaluation was performed before and after the surgery. For the functional assessment, the Oxford ankle foot Oxford score for children in parent version (OxAFQ-C) was used. Radiologically the following angles were evaluated: Talonavicular coverage, talocalcaneal angle on the frontal radiograph, talocalcaneal angle on the profile radiograph, and Moreau Costa Bartani angle. <span class="s2"><strong>Results</strong></span>: Radiographic improvement in foot alignment after surgery was observed in all the patients studied. The functional outcome evaluated by means of the Oxford score for children revealed that all the patients analyzed showed a wide improvement in their school participation, physical activities, emotional state and problems caused by the use of their footwear. <span class="s1"><strong>Discussion</strong></span>: While there is no doubt about the initial orthopedic treatment when this pathology is asymptomatic, surgical treatment continues to be a matter of discussion; especially in terms of when to indicate it, patient symptoms, appropriate age, choice of surgical technique and the performance of complementary procedures. <span class="s1"><strong>Conclusions</strong></span>: This study showed that subtalar arthroereisis is a valid treatment option for children with symptomatic flexible flat feet with very good results and few postoperative complications.</p> Javier Eugenio Dal Lago Santiago Iglesias Lautaro García Osso Eduardo Levy Copyright (c) 2021 Javier Eugenio Dal Lago, Dr., Dr., Dr. 2021-12-03 2021-12-03 1 Acute Myocardial infarction in patients under 45 years old <p class="p1"><span class="s1"><strong>Introduction and objectives</strong></span>: Acute myocardial infarction in young patients (under 45 years old) is a clinical situation with specific characteristics that differ from those of adult patients. The aim of this research was to characterize the behavior of this disease in young patients, identify the main hazard factors, the most frequent topographic locations, the treatment used, and analyze mortality. Method: A descriptive, retrospective, longitudinal study was conducted in patients under 45 years of age with acute myocardial infarction who were admitted to the Coronary Care Unit of the University Hospital of the Inter-American Open University in the city of Buenos Aires during the period from December 15, 2005 to March 18, 2015. <span class="s1"><strong>Results</strong></span>: In the period analyzed we have 29 patients under 45 years old. The 87.3 % corresponds to male sex. The predominant cardiovascular hazard factors were SMKG 72%, HBP 13.79 %. DLP 20.68 %, DBT 3.44%.- The average age of major events was 44 years old. The type of infarction corresponded in 83% with ST elevation. The predominant electrocardiographic location 31.03% corresponded to the anterior face. The responsible artery in 44.82 % corresponded to the LAD. Clinical medical interventions: angioplasty in 17 patients (61%) and thrombolytics in 7 patients. (24%). There were 4 angioplasties with door-to-balloon less than 12 hours, the rest was programmed. Of the patients with thrombolysis, there was 1 with door-to-needle less than 30 mins, the rest more than 60 mins. There were 2 patients with thrombolysis with RCS - a rescue angioplasty was performed in 1 of them. There was 0% mortality during hospitalization. <span class="s1"><strong>Conclusions</strong></span>: Male sex, smoking, ST-segment elevation infarction, involvement of the anterior aspect, and angioplasty as a reperfusion strategy predominated. Key words: Myocardial infarction, hazard factors, angioplasties, responsible face, responsible artery, thrombolysed.</p> <p> Resultados: En el período analizado tenemos 29 pacientes menores de 45 años de edad. El 87.3 % corresponde al sexo masculino. Factores de riesgo cardiovasculares predominantes TBQ 72%, HTA 13,79 %. DLP 20.68 %, DBT 3.44%.- La edad promedio de mayores eventos es a los 44 años. El tipo de infarto correspondió en un 83% con elevación del ST. La localización electrocardiográfica predominante 31.03 % correspondió a la cara anterior. La arteria responsable en un 44,82 % correspondió a la DA. Intervenciones clínico médicas: angioplastias en 17 pacientes (61%) y tromboliticos en 7 pacientes. (24%). Angiosplastiados 4 con PB menos de 12 hs.,el resto programado. De los trombolizados 1 con PA menos de 30 minutos, el resto mayor de 60 minutos. 2 pacientes trombolizados con SCR – en 1 se realizo angiosplastia de rescate. </p> <p>Mortalidad del 0% durante la internación.</p> <p> Conclusiones: Predominaron el sexo masculino, el hábito de fumar, el infarto con supradesnivel del ST, la afectación de la cara anterior y como estrategia de reperfusion la angioplastia. Palabras clave: Infarto del miocardio, factores de riesgo, angioplastias, cara responsable, arteria responsable, trombolisados.</p> Rafael Porcile Gabriel Perez Baztatrrica Luis Alberto Escobar Ricardo Levin Alejandro Botbol Copyright (c) 2021 RAFAEL PORCILE, GABRIEL PEREZ BAZTATRRICA, Luis Alberto Escobar , RICARDO LEVIN, alejandro botbol 2021-12-03 2021-12-03 1 SATB.2 is a sensityive for well differentiated neuroendocrine tumors <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) constitute a heterogeneous group of rare neoplasms, with a sustained increase in incidence in recent years. They originate in neuroendocrine cells, the most common are those of the gastrointestinal system and most are sporadic, although they can be part of hereditary syndromes. Neuroendocrine neoplasms are divided into well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (WDNET) and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (PDNEC). <strong>Material and methods:</strong> We retrospectively evaluated 78 WDNET of the anterior, middle and posterior intestine, in a period of 20 years (01/01/2000 to 07/31/2020), with the SATB2 antibody, in which it is considered a diagnostic marker for WDNET of the hindgut tract. <strong>Results:</strong> Of the 40 WDNET of the anterior intestine, 2 (5%) tumors showed reactivity with SATB 2. Positive staining with SATB2 was observed in 1/17 (5.88%) of WDNET of the midgut. Among the 21 WDNET of the hindgut, we observed SATB2 staining in 19 (90.57%) of the tumors. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Our results indicate that SATB2 is a sensitive marker for hindgut WDNET, although it is not specific.</p> <p>Keywords: STAB2 protein; Carcinoid tumors; Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors; Neuroendocrine tumor; Colorectal neuroendocrine tumors.</p> Antonio Arra Daniel Coso Layla Chagas Guimaraes Copyright (c) 2021 Antonio Arra 2021-12-03 2021-12-03 1 Teaching beyond skills: The psychological effect of a simulation training in the COVID 19 era <p><strong>Background: </strong><span style="font-weight: 400;">Health professionals during the Covid-19 pandemic suffer significant anxiety and depression symptoms (42-71%). This study aimed to explore how a multilevel simulation-based training influences their perception of psychological well-being and distress.</span></p> <p><strong>Methods,</strong><span style="font-weight: 400;"> A pre-post quasi-experimental study evaluated a training intervention that included three phases: Pre-test, Simulation-based training and&nbsp; Post-test. The Simulation-based training&nbsp;consisted in a circuit of three hybrid simulation-based stations with role- plays and low-fidelity simulators about proper use of personal protective equipment, airway management and basic care of the COVID-19 patients. Descriptive statistics were used for the analysis of the quantitative variables.&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Results:</strong><span style="font-weight: 400;"> The level of perceived distress facing the care of COVID-19 patients in the pretest was 21% (n=30). However, after the training, that perception was 32.4% (n=47) (p&lt;0.05). &nbsp; Most of the&nbsp;participants perceived that&nbsp;the simulation-based training contributed to&nbsp;their psychological wellbeing and preparedness,&nbsp;80% (n=117)&nbsp;versus 20% (n= 29) who considered little or nothing (p= 0.001)</span></p> <p><strong>Discussion: </strong><span style="font-weight: 400;">Changes in the pre and post- intervention&nbsp;participants ‘perceptions in the different dimensions (preparedness) are consistent with the educational theories of learning. A positive influence of the training on the psychological wellbeing of the participants was evident.&nbsp;</span></p> Sandra Jaramillo-Rincón Eduardo Durante Alexander Trujillo-Mejía Edwin Sánchez-Mateus Copyright (c) 2021 Sandra Jaramillo-Rincón, Eduardo Durante , Alexander Trujillo-Mejía , Edwin Sánchez-Mateus 2021-12-03 2021-12-03 1 Host genetic markers associated with severe COVID-19: A systematic review <p><em><strong>Background</strong>: </em><em>Severity of COVID-19 has been linked to several factors. As any other polygenic-multifactorial phenotype, genotype is not determinant in this prediction but may add actionable information. There is no consensus yet as to which genetic markers are useful, but several studies have been published that postulate different hypotheses acknowledging the relevance of including host genetics among the variables that predict the risk for severe forms of the disease.&nbsp; </em><em><strong>Objective</strong>: </em><em>The objective of this study is to perform a systematic review that summarizes the projects, studies and postulated markers in order to establish if their application in clinical practice is currently feasible.</em><em><strong> Materials and methods</strong>:</em><em> A comprehensive search was conducted in Pubmed. The inclusion criterion was studies of patients with COVID-19 who had germinal genetic markers of interest sequenced. The selected studies had to include at least a group of patients with the severe form of the disease. </em><em><strong>Results</strong>: </em><em>7 studies that met the criteria were included, which involved 6347 individuals. Markers for 19&nbsp; genes have been postulated as relevant. </em><em><strong>Conclusion</strong>: </em><em>The performed analysis indicates that multiple markers may be correlated with worse evolution of COVID-19; however, great heterogeneity has been found among the studies, which still precludes their translation into clinical practice.&nbsp;</em></p> Matias Butti Sebastián Menazzi Francisco Fernández Jorge Correa Esteban Grzona Copyright (c) 2021 MATIAS BUTTI 2021-12-03 2021-12-03 1 The neural crest transcription factor SOX 10 is preferentially expressed in triple negative breast carcinomas. <p><strong><em>Introduction</em></strong>: The expression of SOX 10 by immunohistochemistry has been documented in benign breast myoepithelial cells and in ductal carcinomas classified by the molecular subtype defined by immunohistochemistry. <strong><em>Material and methods</em></strong>: Material and methods: 77 cases of infiltrating ductal carcinomas of the mammary gland with Sox 10 reactivity were analyzed and subdivided by immunohistochemistry into the different molecular subtypes. The IHC panel used to define molecular subtypes included Estrogen Receptors (ER), Progesterone Receptors (PR), Her 2, cytokeratin(CK) 5/6, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR). <strong><em>Results</em></strong><em>: </em>In our study we demonstrated in 31 cases (44.25%) of 77 infiltrating ductal carcinomas SOX 10 immunoreactivity, which was only observed in basal and undifferentiated subtype triple negative carcinomas. <strong><em>Conclusion</em>: </strong>The expression of Sox 10 in triple negative infiltrating ductal carcinomas supports the concept that these neoplasms show myoepithelial differentiation.</p> Antonio Arra Daniel Coso Rosana Ramos Dos Santos Copyright (c) 2021 Antonio Arra 2021-12-03 2021-12-03 1 1 1 Mid-term evolution of Chronic Chagas disease patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 <p>This is the first report of mid-term evolution of patients with COVID-19 and Chagas Disease (CD). General characteristics, in-hospital evolution, and mid-term follow up of 12 consecutive patients at a single centre is described. A call for action is needed to screen for CD, especially in endemic areas, as the interaction of both diseases may lead to worse cardiac outcomes.</p> Ezequiel José Zaidel Erna Florencia Segovia Sebastian Nuñez Luis C Palomino Romero Ernesto Caliva José Fabián Arcos Alcívar Joaquín Perea Matías Ariel Oliva Lara Gheco Luis Guillermo García Chamorro Melisa Elfman Horacio Germán Cestari Ricardo Alfredo Villarreal María Inés Sosa Liprandi Álvaro Sosa Liprandi Copyright (c) 2021 Ezequiel José Zaidel, E. Florencia Segovia, Sebastian Nuñez, Luis C Palomino Romero, Ernesto Caliva, José Fabián Arcos Alcívar, Joaquín Perea, Matías Ariel Oliva, Lara Gheco, Luis Guillermo García Chamorro, Melisa Elfman, Horacio Germán Cestari, Ricardo Alfredo Villarreal, María Inés Sosa Liprandi, Álvaro Sosa Liprandi 2021-12-03 2021-12-03 1 Impact of acquired immunodeficiency in dermatomycosis. Cases and controls study <p><strong>Background: </strong>In the population of HIV-infected patients, superficial mycoses may have different clinical manifestations, evolution and etiology from those found in the non-HIV population. <strong>Objectives</strong>: To describe superficial lesions of fungal etiology in HIV-infected patients and compare them with a control group.<strong> Materials and methods: </strong>79 patients (25 HIV positive and 54 controls) were evaluated. A card was prepared with data: age, sex, description and location of the lesion, evolution time and previous treatment. Samples of skin and lines of lesions with suspected fungal etiology were taken and a mycological study was performed.<strong> Results: </strong>A slightly significant difference was observed between HIV reactive patients with respect to the control group in the number of cases of foot Tinea unguium. The clinical presentation of intertrigo was more observed in the group of HIV positive patients. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>Superficial mycoses are more common infections in HIV reactive patients, with mixed clinical presentations and the difference in CD4 count between the HIV population in successful ARV treatment does not modify the clinical presentation of dermatophytosis.</p> Susana Carnovale Silvia Relloso Karla Bendezu Renan Da Fonseca Scravoni Gabriela Lopez Daneri Esteban Grzona Copyright (c) 2021 Susana Carnovale, Silvia Relloso, Karla Bendezu, Renan Da Fonseca Scravoni , Gabriela Lopez Daneri 2021-12-03 2021-12-03 1 Serological diagnosis in hydatidosis: Searching standardized antigenic support. Systematic review and meta-analysis <p class="p1"><span class="s1"><strong>Background</strong></span><strong>: </strong>Hydatidosis is a worldwide distributed parasitic zoonosis caused by <em>Echinococcus granulosus s.l</em>. In humans, the diagnosis is based on epidemiological nexus, clinical findings, ultrasound images, and second-line serology. Hydatid fluid is the most widely used source of antigens in serology, but it shows high variability. This review analyzes the diagnostic utility of serology for the diagnosis of hydatidosis, particularly ELISA and Western Blot techniques. <span class="s1"><strong>Material and methods</strong></span><strong>: </strong>Systematic review and meta-analysis of studies with data of diagnostic validity. The reference diagnosis was ultrasound and / or parasitological medical finding. The reproducibility in the studies selection and data extraction was guaranteed, the quality was evaluated according to the QUADAS-2 guide, global results and SROC were obtained under a random effects model in Meta-Disc1.4. <span class="s1"><strong>Results</strong></span><strong>: </strong>Forty-one articles published between 1981 and 2019 were included. Elisa was performed in 33 articles; Western Blot was performed in 14 articles and some of the articles included both techniques. The included articles presented high heterogeneity. The SROC parameters were AUC = 0.9511 and Q=0.8919 for ELISA and AUC=0.9693 and Q = 0.9186 for Western Blot. <span class="s1"><strong>Conclusion</strong></span><strong>: </strong>ELISA and Western Blot have good diagnostic accuracy</p> Ayelen Rocío Retamozo Facundo Ariel Agüero Alicia Graciela Fuchs Andrea Maglioco Copyright (c) 2021 Ayelen Rocío Retamozo, Facundo Ariel Agüero, Alicia Graciela Fuchs, Andrea Maglioco 2021-12-03 2021-12-03 1 Vaccination in patients undergoing surgery and optimal timing of surgery in patients who have been infected with SARS-Cov-2: two key issues in surgery <p>-</p> Luis Alejandro Boccalatte Copyright (c) 2021 Luis Alejandro Boccalatte 2021-12-03 2021-12-03 1 Letter to the reader <p>Carta al lector de la revista para el campo disciplinar de Lic. en Kinesiologia y Fisiatria </p> Facundo Caloggero Ernesto Pablo Lovazzano Copyright (c) 2021 FACUNDO CALOGGERO 2021-12-03 2021-12-03 1 Importance of basic research in the academic training of health science students <p>Dear Editor:</p> <p>I have been pleasantly impressed by the initiative to include as a topic of consideration, in the <em>Interamerican Journal of Health Sciences</em>, the importance of basic research in the academic training of health sciences students.</p> <p>There is no doubt that the construction of knowledge in the medical sciences is a complex process in continuous transformation, which is born and develops from the basic sciences. The creation of new knowledge at this level is carried out through scientific research, which is why the participation of students in basic research constitutes an optimal instance of training for their subsequent and gradual integration into clinical, epidemiological or technological research projects.</p> <p>Basic research initiates health science students in learning a range of skills and new knowledge that stimulates critical thinking, curiosity and creativity. It is a powerful formative process, as creative inspiration for clinical and technological application arises from basic research. Basic science training enables the transfer of appropriately trained talent to the field of technology and the clinic. The most successful entrepreneurial initiatives of recent times have originated in basic research work that has matured in universities and research centres, both public and private. Basic science is necessary for the progress of a country and there is every reason to promote the formation of professionals with training in basic research, starting from the student stage at university. This is something that many of us value, for which we have fought and continue to fight.</p> <p>In relation to the above, it is also necessary for medical science degrees to consider revising their curricular designs. The inclusion of research activity in the curriculum should be organised systematically, taking into account the degree of mastery of the scientific method by the students and their object of work, in order to contribute to the formation of a scientific attitude during their studies, which favours the development of new cognitive interests and motivation for research. Research is considered to be "the highest expression of the ability that a student must master in any kind of educational process". Therefore, student scientific activity should be a determining factor in the scientific-technical and comprehensive education of university students.</p> <p>It has been shown that health science students who start early in basic research are later very productive in the clinical and scientific field, as well as in the field of public health, demonstrating strong skills to generate, share, publish and apply new knowledge in health.&nbsp;</p> Alicia Penissi Copyright (c) 2021 Alicia Penissi 2021-12-03 2021-12-03 1 Laparoscopic Resection of Retroperitoneal Schwannoma: Report of 3 cases <p class="p1"><span class="s1"><strong>Background</strong></span>: Schwannoma is a neoplasm that arises from Schwann cells in the peripheral nerve sheath. They are mainly benign tumors, Ohigashi T et al. reported that only 0.7% is located in the retroperitoneum and these are associated with a higher rate of malignancy. The preoperative diagnosis is a challenge due to its low frequency and the low specificity of imaging studies. Treatment consists of its complete surgical resection, avoiding its rupture since it is associated with local recurrences. The laparoscopic approach presents technical limitations due to the usually large size of these tumors, and few cases of laparoscopic excision have been reported in the world literature to date. <span class="s1"><strong>Methods</strong></span>: the results of 3 retroperitoneal schwannomas of different location, size and complexity are presented, all resolved laparoscopically by a highly complex laparoscopic surgery team. <span class="s1"><strong>Results</strong></span>: all surgeries were performed completely laparoscopically, there were no complications associated with the mini-invasive procedure and all the benefits of it were obtained. The anatomopathological and immunohistochemical examination was compatible with schwannomas in all 3 cases. To date, the patients do not present recurrences. <span class="s1"><strong>Conclusions</strong></span>: although the location, size and relationship with other anatomical structures make the laparoscopic surgical approach difficult, with a well-trained team in laparoscopic surgery, these procedures can be performed safely, without increased morbidity and with all the benefits that mini-invasive procedures provide.</p> Pablo Llanos Lucio Segundo Uranga Copyright (c) 2021 Pablo Llanos, MD 2021-12-03 2021-12-03 1 Lung damage caused by electronic cigarettes in non-smokers, a Systematic Review <p class="western" align="justify"><span style="color: #4f81bd;"><span style="font-family: Avenir, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-US"><em><strong>Background:</strong></em></span></span></span></span> <span style="font-family: Avenir, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-US"><em>The use of electronic cigarette by non-smokers is increasing under the belief that these are a harmless alternative to tobacco. It has been evidenced that the use of electronic cigarette causes damage to systemic health, but, up to date, a systematic review about how “vaping” affects non-smokers’ health has not been conducted. The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the available evidence to determine the lung damage that electronic cigarettes cause in non-smokers’ health. </em></span></span></span><span style="color: #4f81bd;"><span style="font-family: Avenir, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-US"><em><strong>Material and methods:</strong></em></span></span></span></span><span style="font-family: Avenir, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-US"><em> We conducted a research of the available evidence on different online searching engines such as PubMed</em></span></span></span> <span style="font-family: Avenir, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-US"><em>based on the MeSH terms. We selected studies which met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. </em></span></span></span><span style="color: #4f81bd;"><span style="font-family: Avenir, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-US"><em><strong>Results:</strong></em></span></span></span></span><span style="font-family: Avenir, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-US"><em> 14 articles were included, of those 7 were clinical trials and 7 were cross-sectional studies. The total of patients included was 2640 with an average age of 28 years old, 54% were female. None of the patients were ex or current smokers. The most common symptoms found on vapers were dizziness (75,5%), sore throat (38,8%) and shortness of breath (28,4%). Medium FEV</em></span></span></span><sub><span style="font-family: Avenir, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-US"><em>1</em></span></span></span></sub><span style="font-family: Avenir, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-US"><em>/FVC found on the spirometry was 85% and medium FeNO was 17,5 ppb. </em></span></span></span><span style="color: #4f81bd;"><span style="font-family: Avenir, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-US"><em><strong>Conclusion:</strong></em></span></span></span></span><span style="font-family: Avenir, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-US"><em> Even though measured variables do not show severe respiratory damage associated with vaping in non-smokers, electronic cigarettes’ safety cannot be assured due to the lack of available evidence.</em></span></span></span></p> <p class="western" align="justify"><span style="color: #4f81bd;"><span style="font-family: Avenir, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-US"><em><strong>Keywords:</strong></em></span></span></span></span> <span style="font-family: Avenir, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-US"><em>Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems; Vaping, Lung Injury; Lung Diseases; Non-Smokers</em></span></span></span></p> <p class="western" lang="en-US" align="justify">&nbsp;</p> Lorena Djament Magali Balmaceda Copyright (c) 2021 Djament L, Balmaceda M 2021-12-03 2021-12-03 1 Chondrocutaneous compund graft to repair cicatrizal ectropion <p>Lower eyelid ectropion is a complication that occasionally occurs as a consequence of local trauma or surgical resections when there is a skin deficit. This type of ectropion is called scarring and the eyelid behaves differently in relation to other areas of the body. The lower eyelid has a thin musculocutaneous anterior lamella and a posterior lamella composed of the tarsus and conjunctiva. Skin grafts placed in this area may have retraction and the lamella often do not have enough strength to prevent ectropion. That is why, for special cases, the use of the chondrocutaneous composite graft is very useful as it avoids skin retraction as much as possible and provides greater support by having cartilage at its base.</p> <p>The present work suggests that the chondrocutaneous composite graft obtained from the auricular area is a very useful material for complex cases of scar ectropion of the lower eyelid.</p> <p><em>Key words: ectropion, lower eyelid reconstruction, auricular chondrocutaneous graft</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ernesto Adrián Moretti Margarita Ospina Ximena Cifuentes Selene Falzone Jonathan Camargo Juan Manuel Peláez Pablo Cortadi Franco Lelli Luis Márquez Copyright (c) 2021 ERNESTO ADRIAN MORETTI 2021-12-03 2021-12-03 1